INTEGRATED ASSESSMENT OF SCION-STOCK COMBINATIONS OF APPLE TREE AND EFFICIENCY OF THEIR CULTIVATION IN ORCHARDS OF AN INTENSIVE TYPE
L.V. Grigoryeva, О.A. Еrshova
Michurinsk State Agrarian University, ul. Internatsionalnaya, 101, Michurinsk, Tambovskaya obl., 393760, Russian Federation
Summary. On the basis of long-term investigations for the conditions of the Central Chernozem region of Russia the agrobiological models of scion-stock combinations of apple tree were developed, including the system of the main parameters of the physiological state of plants and ensuring the formation of stable productivity. Biometrical parameters of apple trees (height, crown projection, crown capacity, trunk diameter, the number of roots, and an increase in shoot length) are caused by stock vigor by 71–98 %. This should be taken into account while choosing apple tree planting density. There are mathematical correlations between a number of roots and crown capacity (r = 0.86–0.94) and between the number of roots and the total increase in shoot length (r = 0.72–0.90). According to the results of examination of growth biology, early maturity, productivity and fruit quality, the most promising scion-stock combinations were selected for different types of orchards. The intensive technologies with the planting scheme 4.5 x 1.5 m of Martovskoe, Bogatyr, Sinap Orlovsky varieties combined with P14 rootstock and of Orlik variety with P60 and P14 stocks ensured the harvest of 30–36 t/ha in 6–10 years after planting. For Martovskoe variety with 62-396 and P60 stocks, Bogatyr with 57-545 and P60, and Sinap Orlovsky with P60 this value was 25–30 t/ha. With the planting scheme 4.5 × 1 m for the 7th year of use the yield reached 30–40 t/ha (Orlik variety with 62-396 and P59 stocks, Zhigulevskoye variety with 57-545 and P59 stocks, Lobo variety with P59 stock) and 40–50 t/ha (Orlik variety with P60 stock, Zhigulevskoe and Lobo varieties with 62-396 and P60 stocks). The fraction of the best and first-class fruits reached 90–95 %.
Keywords: apple tree, scion-stock combinations, agrobiological models, yield, economical efficiency.
For citation: Grigoryeva L.V., Еrshova О.A. Integrated Assessment of Scion-Stock Combinations of Apple Tree and Efficiency of Their Cultivation in Orchards of an Intensive Type. Dostizheniya nauki i tekhniki APK. 2016. Vol. 30. No. 5. Pp. 53-57 (In Russ.).